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Investigation – Treatment for Tuberculosis

For my disease paper, I have decided to execute further research on Tuberculosis, including the vaccine, its causes, its effects, and treatments. Since I have a basic understanding of the definition of tuberculosis, I thought it would be interesting to see how the infectious disease may be treated.

According to research, there is a rather significant number of physicians who are not fully educated on tuberculosis treatment. “Can Physicians Treat Tuberculosis? Report on a National Survey of Physician Practices” describes an experiment in which a group of doctors assessed whether the general population of physicians would follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for tuberculosis treatment.

Based on their research, several physicians described a treatment regimen that was inappropriate. There were specialists who more likely understood appropriate treatment; however, regimens were often too long of a duration or could lead to further transmission and drug resistance (Sumartojo, Geiter, Miller & Hale, 1997).

The results states that “physicians who treat tuberculosis require training and support.” Information should be available in various formats so physicians may access and understand it (Sumartojo, Geiter, Miller & Hale, 1997).

Treating tuberculosis seems like it may take longer than other bacterial infections, so what are the appropriate treatment options according to CDC?

There are ten drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating tuberculosis. Of the ten, there are four that are most common: isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, which are typically taken for an average of 6-9 months for full treatment (CDC). It is extremely important to complete the full course of treatment; if not, bacteria that are still alive may resist drugs and become more dangerous and difficult to treat.

How can we ensure that physicians are more aware of treatment options? Maybe there could be required courses or online orientations with examination questions to complete. Researchers could provide more presentations on the disease. Healthcare companies and agencies could send more information to offices. If it will help prevent the spread and placing individuals’ lives in danger, it is important to ensure the necessary information is widespread.

Citation Information:

CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/default.htm

Sumartojo, E. M., Geiter, L. J., Miller, B., & Hale, B. E. (1997). Can physicians treat tuberculosis? report on a national survey of physican practices . Public Health Briefs, 87(12), 2008-2011.

Evaluation of Sources

Is the article from a peer-reviewed journal? Yes

Who wrote it? Individuals with advanced degrees

Who published the site? American Journal of Public Health

Does the article state both sides? It seemed as if it may have been biased, but research and numbers verify that both sides were taken into account.

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Reflections After Mid-Term

Things have definitely improved since I’ve last reflected on my progress in this course. As I previously mentioned, I’ve never been quite keen to biology, or any “hard science” for that matter. However, I have realized that I am finding the course material much more interesting than I was before. 

I am enjoying the visual and hands-on approach that we have been implementing. It is definitely helping me to remember the sequence of processes. Although it seemed as if we did not initially replicate the process of muscle contraction and blood flow in the heart correctly, the mistakes that we made helped me to learn and gain a better understanding. I also enjoyed the labeling of the skeletons; beyond the act of labeling, the interactions with my classmates help me to better recall information as well. 

I have also found the use of youtube videos while studying helps to break things down step by step for me, and I like the option of replaying the scene until I fully understand it. 

In addition to these new ways of studying, I have realized that applying the course terms to real life situations through blogs and various assignments have led to my increase in enjoying the course! I’m excited about this improvement and to continue learning new things! 

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Dictionary – Ch.4-6

 

CHAPTER 4

endocrineglands

Exocrine glands – This is a type of gland that releases substances through ducts or tubes. Substances may include mucus, saliva, oil, earwax. milk, and digestive enzymes.

Endocrine glands – This type of gland makes hormones that are released directly into the fluid outside the glands.

 

 

 

 

synovial

Synovial membrane – This is a connective tissue membrane that lines joint cavities. It secretes fluid that lubricates the ends of moving bones.

CHAPTER 5

osteoblast       osteocyte

Osteoblasts – These are the types of bone cells that form the matrix of bone tissue, which eventually becomes mineralized (due to calcium).

Osteoclasts – These are the types of bone cells that break down the matrix of bone tissue.

Osteocyte – This is the name of he bone-forming cell after the matrix has become mineralized and the cells stops forming bone matrix.

CHAPTER 6

myofibril

Myofibrils – These are threadlike structures in a muscle fiber that contain the units of muscle contraction.

rigormortis

Rigor mortis – This is the stiffening of muscles after death due to the lack of ATP energy to release muscle contraction.

 

 

 

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My Encounter With Improving My Health & Wellness

This semester I am fulfilling my PEAC credit at WAU by taking PEAC 160 – Physical Fitness for Life. So far, we have covered various topics including heart rate, healthy eating habits, sleeping habits, ways to reduce stress, and proper exercising techniques. 

This past Monday in class, the professor was talking to us about proper form and exercise for the different parts of our bodies.  We went into the weight room and practiced using machines that specifically focus on abs and obliques, legs, arms, etc. 

I found it interesting because as we were going through the different steps, I was able to make comparisons with the body structure and muscles we have been talking about in BIOL 140. 

Many of the free-hand and cardio exercises we discussed would not be impossible without the synovial joint movements we talked about in BIOL 140: flexion and extension, circumduction and rotation, and abduction and adduction. These movements help us perform exercises like jumping jacks, arm circles, foot flexing, and squats. 

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While discussing exercises, the professor emphasized exercises that could help students gain or tone muscle. As we discussed in BIOL 140, our muscular system helps us move the body and its parts. It maintains our posture and also creates heat by increasing metabolic activity. All which play an important role when exercising. 

For example, to help tone muscles in our arms, one option is to lift weights. When we perform this type of exercise, we contract our skeletal muscle and practice flexion and extension. 

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I was glad to have the opportunity to apply knowledge from one class to another class. It definitely helped me to practice my learning skills so that I may continue to apply it in the future.